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The Citadel A.J. Cronin Movie

The Citadel by A.J. Cronin. Starring Ben Cross, Claire Higgins and Gareth Thomas. Picture quality can be challenging at times The Citadel is a novel by A. J. Cronin, first published in 1937, which was groundbreaking in its treatment of the contentious theme of medical ethics.It has been credited with laying the foundation in Great Britain for the introduction of the NHS a decade later. In the United States, it won the National Book Award for 1937 novels, voted by members of the American Booksellers Association Archibald Joseph Cronin (19 July 1896 - 6 January 1981), known as A. J. Cronin, was a Scottish physician and novelist. His best-known novel The Citadel (1937) tells of a Scottish doctor in a Welsh mining village, who then shoots up the medical ladder in London. Cronin knew both venues, as a medical inspector of mines and as a doctor in Harley Street

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The Citadel is a 1983 BBC television adaptation written by Don Shaw from A. J. Cronin's 1937 novel The Citadel.It was produced by Ken Riddington.The drama was directed by Peter Jefferies and Mike Vardy. The BBC dramatisation stars Ben Cross as Dr. Andrew Manson and Clare Higgins as Christine Manson. It was broadcast in the United States from November 1983 until January 1984 by PBS television. When The Citadel was written in 1937, those who could afford a doctor got one, those who couldn't, attempted make do and mend themselves. As a young man, Scottish writer A. J. Cronin studied medicine at the University of Glasgow and travelled to take up post as a junior doctor in Wales in the 1920s. That decade saw huge medical advances in. The Citadel: Directed by King Vidor. With Robert Donat, Rosalind Russell, Ralph Richardson, Rex Harrison. An enthusiastic young doctor happily embarks on his career, but it isn't long before he finds out what being a doctor really entails The Citadel: Directed by Paul Bogart. With Ann Blyth, Lloyd Bochner, James Donald, Larry Gates. The good doctor is on trial before the British Medical Association Council, if he is found guilty, he will no longer be allowed to practice medicine. The story unfolds through flashbacks which depict his career and his subsequent downfall

A.J. Cronin Biography. Archibald Joseph Cronin, MB, ChB, MD, DPH, MRCP (19 July 1896 - 6 January 1981) was a Scottish novelist and physician. His best-known works are Hatter's Castle, The Stars Look Down, The Citadel, The Keys of the Kingdom and The Green Years, all of which were adapted to film The Citadel was published in 1937, with a film version produced in 1938; as will be noted, he used much of his professional career as a background to the book. Cronin died in 1981. The Citadel begins as Dr Andrew Manson, a newly qualified doctor and a graduate of St Andrews/Dundee, arrives in a small Welsh mining village to take up his first. A.J. Cronin, Writer: Kala Pani. British novelist A.J. Cronin was born in Dumbartonshire, Scotland, in 1896. In 1914 he entered Glasgow University to study medicine, but his studies were interrupted by World War I, in which he served in the British Navy as a surgeon sublieutenant. He received his M.B. and Ch.B. in 1919, and took a job as a ship's surgeon on a passenger liner The Citadel won the National Book Award for Novels in 1937. It was written by A.J. Cronin The dialogue in this semi-autobiographical story about a talented young Welsh doctor was quite good. The cases and threads were also convincing. The doctor, Andrew, and his wife, Christine, were both likable characters Andrew Manson, a young, enthusiastic doctor takes his first job in a Welsh mining town, and begins to wonder at the persistent cough many of the miners have...

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Share your videos with friends, family, and the worl Cronin suffered ostracism by the medical profession for his liberal views, but his book is said to have helped pave the way for public acceptance of National Health Service in the following decade. For more on Cronin, see Dale Salwak, A. J. Cronin (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1985) and J. A. Fisher, A. J. Cronin--physician, author Genre. Archibald Joseph Cronin was a Scottish novelist, dramatist, and non-fiction writer who was one of the most renowned storytellers of the twentieth century. His best-known works are The Citadel and The Keys of the Kingdom, both of which were made into Oscar-nominated films. He also created the Dr. Finlay character, the hero of a series of. A.J. Cronin's book The Citadel was adapted for a 1938 film starring Robert Donat, Rosalind Russell, Ralph Richardson, Rex Harrison, and Emlyn Williams, directed by King Vidor. Donat plays Andrew, a young, idealistic new doctor who goes to work in a small Welsh mining town, where he marries a pretty schoolteacher, Christine (Rosalind Russell) Citadel, The (1938) -- (Movie Clip) Whilst Nature Makes Them Well Robert Donat as Manson, paying his first house call on a Welsh mining family, his character based on the author and physician A.J. Cronin, who practiced in Wales, later meeting jaunty fellow doctor Denny (Ralph Richardson), early in The Citadel, 1938

The Citadel (novel) - Wikipedi

  1. The Citadel by A.J. Cronin is a fiction novel published in 1937. Although an older book that's only read for research papers, it is intriguing, immersing the reader into a doctor's life and career in the interwar United Kingdom. The book presents an analysis of the issues facing British healthcare during the 1930s. Cronin does..
  2. This is film based on A J Cronins famous Book The Citadel that led to the establishment of the NHS and pre full registration internship for new medical graduates . Film differed from the book . In the book Christine Butler dies but in the film Danny dies . The producer thought Christines death will be too much for the public
  3. The Citadel, a 1937 novel by A. J. Cronin; The Citadel, a novel by Peter Aleshkovsky; The Citadel, a Dragonlance novel by Richard A. Knaak, in the Classics Series; Video games. The Citadel, a Combine headquarters on Earth's City 17 in the game Half-Life 2; The Citadel (Mass Effect), an immense space station and the heart of galactic.

The Citadel. A. J. Cronin. Fb&c Limited, Jan 6, 2017 - 422 pages. 8 Reviews. Excerpt from The Citadel. Andrew descended. The next minute, while he was gathering himself for the ordeal of his entrance, the front door was flung open and he was in the lighted hall being welcomed effusively by a short, plump, smiling woman of about forty with a. His best-known works are The Citadel and The Keys of the Kingdom, both of which were made into Oscar-nominated films. A.J. Cronin (Author of The Citadel) Review by Sylvia D: The Citadel is a powerful attack on the medical system in this country before the inception of the National Health Service in. Results 1. The Citadel has been adapted into several successful film, radio, and television productions around the world, including the Oscar-nominated 1938 film starring Ralph Donat, Rosalind Russell, Ralph Richardson, In this story A.J Cronin relates the deeds of Andrew Manson AJ Cronin (1896-1981), an author little known to those below the age of fifty, was arguably the most successful novelist writing in English in the 1930s. His best known novel, The Citadel, was published in 19371. The book paints an unflattering portrait of British medicine in the inter-war years. It is widely thought that the book influenced. Essay | निबन्ध is a Channel developed especially for online free essays, articles, speeches, debates, biographies, stories & poems in Hindi and English langu..

The Citadel (1938 film) 1938 British drama film based on the 1937 novel of the same name by A. J. Cronin. Wikipedia. The Citadel (novel) Novel by A. J. Cronin, first published in 1937, which was groundbreaking in its treatment of the contentious theme of medical ethics. It has been credited with laying the foundation in Great Britain for the. The Citadel written in 1937 is a fantastic book. And this is also autobiographical - Cronin himself was a doctor who came up through the hard times and then became a hugely successful writer. He later published his autobiography in 1952- Adventures in Two Worlds A.J. Cronin. Release Date (Streaming): Jun 22, 2009 There are no featured reviews for The Citadel because the movie has not released yet (). See Movies in Theaters. Quotes. The Citadel, from a novel by AJ Cronin, former Welsh GP and medical inspector of British mines, pointed the way towards the Labour Government's creation of the National Health Service by Nye Bevan.

The Citadel by A.J. Cronin tells the story of Andrew Manson, a young Scottish medical doctor, who began his career in a Welsh mining town in 1924. Manson was ardent and idealistic and was appalled to discover the general condition of health care in the small community. He hadn't been there long when an outbreak of typhoid fever revealed just how dire the situation was The Citadel (sh. Citadela) je britanski crno-bijeli film snimljen 1938. u režiji Kinga Vidora.Predstavlja prvu adaptaciju popularnog istoimenog romana A. J. Cronina.Protagonist, čiji lik tumači Robert Donat je mladi i idealistički škotski ljekar koji nakon diplome dolazi u Južni Wales i tamo nastoji pomoći rudarima oboljelima od ugljene prašine

The Citadel. AJ Cronin's groundbreaking novel about medical life before the NHS, dramatised by Christopher Reason Addeddate 2017-01-19 22:48:29 Identifier in.ernet.dli.2015.527636 Identifier-ark ark:/13960/t56f15f56 Ocr ABBYY FineReader 11.0 Ppi 600 Scanner Internet Archive Python library 1.2.0.dev The Citadel by A. J. Cronin: An Appreciation. Invited Article. Dr. B. Ekbal. The Citadel, by AJ Cronin published almost 70 years ago is about what it means to be a doctor. It was written at a time when medical practice involved hardly any laboratory tests, x-ray films, or specialists

A. J. Cronin - Wikipedi

Pris: 125 kr. Häftad, 2019. Skickas inom 10-15 vardagar. Köp The Citadel av A J Cronin på Bokus.com Review by Sylvia D: The Citadel is a powerful attack on the medical system in this country before the inception of the National Health Service in. Results 1 - 30 of The Citadel by A. J. Cronin and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now a The Green Years is a 1946 American drama film featuring Charles Coburn, Tom Drake, Beverly Tyler and Hume Cronyn.It was adapted by Robert Ardrey from A. J. Cronin's 1944 novel of the same name.It tells the story of the coming-of-age of an Irish orphan in Scotland and was directed by Victor Savill The Citadel was published in 1937, with a film version produced in 1938; as will be noted, he used much of his professional career as a background to the book. I first read The Citadel by A. J. Cronin about thirty years ago, having been brought up as a medical student on. A.J. Cronin, Dev Anand, Mumtaz, Vijay Anand, Kaushal Bharati, Mahesh Kaul. Tere Mere Sapne is a movie starring Dev Anand, Mumtaz, and Mahesh Kaul. Dr. Anand Kumar attains his degree in medicine and re-locates to a small village to assist the local doctors there

The Citadel (1983 TV series) - Wikipedi

A. J. Cronin's 1937 novel, The Citadel, was a frontal attack on the British medical establishment of its day, conjuring the Shavian quote that all professions are conspiracies against the laity Adapted from A. J. Cronin's best-selling novel, The Citadel (1938) is about a doctor (Robert Donat) temporarily forsaking his ideals for money. At first, full of lofty goals as he labors in the slums of a mining town, Dr. Manson struggles to save the health of downtrodden miners only to be beaten by both the bureaucracy and the rebellious miners For more on Cronin, see Dale Salwak, A. J. Cronin (Boston: Twayne Publishers, ) and J. A. Fisher, A. J. Cronin-physician, author,. Review by Sylvia D: The Citadel is a powerful attack on the medical system in this country before the inception of the National Health Service in

A. J. Cronin - The Citadel - Review - The Wee Review ..

I N February 1938, according to a Gallup Poll, A.J. Cronin's recently published novel, The Citadel (1937), 'impressed' more people than any other book except the Bible. 1 A.J. Cronin was perhaps the most successful novelist of the 1930s, and the most successful of his novels was The Citadel.This sold more copies, and faster, than any other hardback novel of the decade Cronin, A. J.. The Citadel (Bello) (p. 21). Pan Macmillan. Kindle Edition. There is an interesting section of the book which didn't make the film. It is about a suspected case of madness. One of the miners had been: acting strangely lately, getting into trouble at the mine, losing his memory. He had turned quarrelsome and violent The Citadel by A.J. Cronin. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Cronin, see my review here. This book is one of the best books that I have read in my life and I have become a hard core fan of A J Cronin. The Xitadel leave Wales for London, where Manson hopes to extend his research within a government agency

La Citadelle (The Citadel) est un roman de A. J. Cronin publié en juin 1937 au Royaume-Uni, puis en septembre 1937 aux États-Unis.. Dès sa publication, le roman obtient un véritable succès et se vend à plus de 500 000 exemplaires en deux ans. Il est traduit en 24 langues et connaît des adaptations au cinéma, à la télévision et à la radio [1] By AJ Cronin. Dramatised by Christopher Reason. Dr Andrew Manson performs a remarkable doctoring feat in a crises. Starring Richard Fleeshman and Julian Lewis Jones The Citadel is a novel by A. J. Cronin, first published in 1937, which caused an outcry in England due to its scathing criticism of the state of medical care at the time. The book was groundbreaking with its treatment of the contentious theme of medical ethics, laying the foundation for the introduction of the NHS a decade later THE OLD CURIOSITY SHOP, Charles Dickens, Leather-like, ICL Book PURTY!

289. Köp. Skickas inom 10-15 vardagar. The Stars Look Down was A.J. Cronin's fourth novel, published in 1935, and this tale of a North country mining family was a great favourite with his readers. Robert Fenwick is a miner, and so are his three sons. His wife is proud that all her four.. Toronto Film Society presented The Citadel (1938) on Monday, May 8, 1978 in a double bill with The Conquerors as part of the Season 30 Monday Evening Film Buff Series, Programme 10.. Production Company: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (British). Producer: Victor Saville. Director: King Vidor. Screenplay: Ian Dalrymple, Frank Wead and Elizabeth Hill, from the novel by A.J. Cronin The Citadel: A Novel Apr 15, 2015. by AJ Cronin. ( 83 ) $10.99. A groundbreaking novel of its time and a National Book Award winner: [A] fine, honest, and moving a study of a young doctor (The Atlantic Monthly). The Citadel follows the life of Andrew Manson, a young and idealistic Scottish doctor, as he navigates the challenges of.

Citadel, The (1938) -- (Movie Clip) It Is God's Will. The new and inexperienced local doctor Manson (Robert Donat) has just delivered what appeared to be a stillborn child to the wife of Welsh miner Joe (Edward Chapman), Joan Kemp-Welch the worried nurse, in The Citadel, 1938, from the landmark novel by physician A.J. Cronin Book The Citadel by Aj Cronin Abholung Preis 1.-CHF, mit Post Versand 8.-CHF à l'achat de 2 annonces vous économiser un frais postale. beim Kauf von 2 Inserate Sie sparen eine Postgebühr. The Citadel. A. J. Cronin.1990. 134 páge A ground-breaking novel of its time and a National Book Award winner Looking for books by A.J. Cronin? See all books authored by A.J. Cronin, including The Keys of the Kingdom, and The Citadel, and more on ThriftBooks.com The Citadel is a 1938 British drama film based on the 1937 novel of the same name by A. J. Cronin. The film was directed by King Vidor and produced by Victor Saville for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer British at Denham Studios. [1] It stars Robert Donat and Rosalind Russell

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The Citadel (1938) - IMD

A.J. Cronin's recently reprinted 1937 novel The Citadel is an old fashioned good story with a moral about falling into and being redeeming from the sin of avarice. Andrew Manson is a young doctor who starts this novel as an assistant to a disabled physician in a Welsh mining town Archibald Joseph Cronin (* 19.Juli 1896 in Cardross, Schottland; † 6. Januar 1981 in Glion, Schweiz) war ein schottischer Arzt und Schriftsteller.Einige seiner Romane wurden Welterfolge. Spannendes Geschehen, lebensnahe Charaktere und ausgeprägte Sozialkritik kennzeichnen sein Erzählen. In seiner Autobiographie Abenteuer in zwei Welten bekennt er sich zudem unmissverständlich zum. The Citadel adalah sebuah film Inggris yang berdasarkan pada novel bernama sama karya A. J. Cronin, yang pertama kali diterbitkan pada 1937.Film tersebut disutradarai oleh King Vidor dan diproduksi oleh Victor Saville di Denham Studios, dengan Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer mendistribusikan film tersebut di Inggris dan AS Archibald Joseph Cronin (19 July 1896 - 6 January 1981), known professionally as A. J. Cronin, was a Scottish physician and novelist. His best-known novel The Citadel (1937) tells of a Scottish doctor in a Welsh mining village, who then shoots up the medical ladder in London. Cronin knew both venues, as a medical inspector of mines and as a doctor in Harley Street

The Citadel follows the life of Andrew Manson, a young and idealistic Scottish doctor, as he navigates the challenges of practicing medicine across interwar Wales and England. Based on Cronin's own experiences as a physician, The Citadel boldly confronts traditional medical ethics, and has been noted as one of the inspirations for the formation of the National Health Service

Citadel, The Stars Look Down and Cronin's other classic novels, The Minstrel Boy is a great book by a much-loved author The Citadel Tale of two nurses, Anne, who takes the blame for her sister, also a nurse, who causes the death of a young patient. The Citadel. Con CD Audio. Per Le Scuole Superiori Hatter's Castl AJ Cronin: The doctor turned novelist whose heart always remained in Scotland. IT was 40 years ago this week that one of Scotland's most famous writers, AJ Cronin, passed away in a nursing home in Glion near Montreux in Switzerland at the age of 84. For one short period Archibald Joseph Cronin was the highest-earning novelist in the world. Buy The Citadel by A. J. Cronin (ISBN: 9780450031274) from Amazon's Book Store. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders The Citadel follows the life of Andrew Manson, a young and idealistic Scottish doctor, as he navigates the challenges of practicing medicine across interwar Wales and England. Based on A.J. Cronin's own experiences as a physician, this book boldly confronts traditional medical ethics, and has been noted as one of the inspirations for the formation of the National Health Service Archibald Joseph (A. J.) Cronin (Cardross (), 19 juli 1896 - Montreux (Zwitserland), 6 januari 1981) was een Schots auteur en arts.Is hij het meest bekend om The Stars Look Down, The Citadel en The Keys of the Kingdom.Hij voltooide zijn studie medicijnen in 1925 aan de Universiteit van Glasgow.Cronin ligt begraven in La Tour-de-Peilz, Zwitserland

The Citadel by A.J. Cronin (1983-11-30) and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.com The Citadel. Ian Dalrymple, Frank Wead, Elizabeth Hill. Novel: A.J. Cronin. Andrew Manson, a young, enthusiastic doctor takes his first job in a Welsh mining town, and begins to wonder at the persistent cough many of the miners have. When his attempts to prove its cause are thwarted, he moves to London

Robert Donat Films - The Citadel. 1938. From the novel by A. J. Cronin, The Citadel, 1938, is another great Donat film directed to perfection by King Vidor and co-starring Rosalind Russell and Ralph Richardson. Donat plays a doctor who is very interested in his profession and truly wants to heal the sick The 1944 film starred Gregory Peck (who also played Pa Baxter in the film adaptation of The Yearling). It seems, though, that Cronin is better known outside the U.S. Most of the search traffic for his name comes from India and the U.K., 2 which is probably in no small part due to the importance of The Citadel in the U.K Synopsis. Andrew Manson, a young, enthusiastic doctor takes his first job in a Welsh mining town, and begins to wonder at the persistent cough many of the miners have. When his attempts to prove its cause are thwarted, he moves to London. His new practice does badly

Video: The Citadel (TV Movie 1960) - IMD

A.J. Cronin Movies List, A.J. Cronin Filmography, A.J ..

Archibald Joseph Cronin, född 19 juli 1896 i Cardross, Dunbartonshire (i nuv. The Citadel (1938) [filmatiserad 1938 A.J. Cronin på Internet Movie Database (engelska) Sidan redigerades senast den 6 augusti 2014 kl. 18.51. Wikipedias text är. A J Cronin - Author of the Citadel If To Kill A Mocking Bird is responsible for creating armies of lawyers than this should have been the book responsible for creating an army of doctors (so far I've only ever seen Giorgio Armani being inspired into medicine by it and even then he changed career and gained prominence in a field far removed from medicine [1]) A.J. Cronin was perhaps the most successful novelist of the 1930s probably as significant a figure as J.B. Priestley ― The English Historical Review Immensely successful, utterly ruthless ― The Spectator Cronin was a master of melodrama ― The Herald One of the most popular authors in the English speaking world ― New York Times A grand story, well told, and better balanced than. A colleague and friend recently reminded me of the movie of this book in 1944 that starred Gregory Peck. It got me to thinking that it has been easily forty years since I read any A.J. Cronin. Loyola Press is to be commended for including this novel by A.J. Cronin in its list of Loyola Classics Rent $1.99. Buy $6.99. View in iTunes. Oscar-winners Rosalind Russell (Auntie Mame) and Robert Donat (Goodbye, Mr. Chips) star in this Oscar-nominated drama about a struggling doctor who gives up his ideals for a posh high-society practice. In the process, he nearly loses his wife and his friends before tragedy opens his eyes

'The Citadel' by A.J. Cronin - The Bottle Im

It was a best-seller, was translated into five languages and later became a film (A.J. Cronin's Hatter's Castle (1942)). The book's success convinced Cronin to pursue writing full-time. Probably his most famous novel, The Citadel, which was written in 1937, has been made into several theatrical films and a few television series The Monthly Book Group. The host for the evening and the proposer of A. J. Cronin's The Citadel (1937) was a retired General Practitioner. He opened proceedings by explaining the reasons for his choice of book and detailing the author's background. He explained that he first became aware of A. J. Cronin (AJ) when his family. The Citadel (novel)100% (1/1) The Citadel is a 1983 BBC television adaptation written by Don Shaw from A. J. Cronin's novel The Citadel, which was originally published in 1937. The novel was made into a 1938 film with Robert Donat, Rosalind Russell, Ralph Richardson and Rex Harrison, and television versions include one American (1960), two. A. J. Cronin. Archibald Joseph Cronin, MB, ChB, MD, DPH, MRCP (19 July 1896 - 6 January 1981) was a Scottish novelist and physician. His best-known novel was The Citadel, about a doctor in a Welsh ing village who quickly moves up the career ladder in London. Cronin had observed this scene closely as a Medical Inspector of Mines and later as a. The Citadel (Classic Reprint) [Archibald Joseph Cronin] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Excerpt from The Citadel Andrew descended. Birth Name, Archibald Joseph Cronin Probably his most famous novel, The Citadel, which was written in , has been made into several theatrical films

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The Citadel (Audio Download): A. J. Cronin, Franklin Engelmann, Audible Studios: Amazon.in: Book The Citadel by the Scottish author A.J. Cronin was first published in 1939. It was the fifth book that he had had published and prior to taking up writing he had been a doctor for ten years. The Citadel must have been cooking away in his head for several years before he wrote it 179. The Citadel, by A. J. Cronin (read 1 Mar 1945) (National Book Award fiction prize for 1937) I started reading this book on Feb 27, 1945. On that day I said: Am reading A. J. Cronin's The Citadel. It Is about a doctor in Wales. Very good. Better than his The Keys of the Kingdom: faster moving and more compact

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His best-known works are The Citadel and The Keys of the Kingdom, both of which were made into Oscar-nominated films. He also created the Dr. Finlay character, the hero of a series of stories that served as the basis for the long-running BBC tel Archibald Joseph Cronin was a Scottish novelist, dramatist, and non-fiction writer who was one of the most renowned storytellers of the twentieth century Die Zitadelle ist zunächst der Titel eines Romans des schottischen Arztes und Schriftstellers Archibald Joseph Cronin aus dem Jahr 1937. Dieser diente als Vorlage des gleichnamigen britischen Spielfilms des Regisseurs King Vidor aus dem Jahr 1938, der vom US-amerikanischen Filmstudio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) in Großbritannien produziert wurde The Citadel Directed by King Vidor Written by Ian Dalrymple et al based on the novel by A.J. Cronin 1938/UK Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer British Studios First viewing; Warner Archives DVD [box] Tagline: Secrets of a doctor as told by a doctor![/box] Robert Donat is wonderful in this medical melodrama • A.J.CRONIN Archibald Joseph Cronin, MB, ChB , MD, DPH, MRCP, • was a Scottish physician and novelist. • a Sub Lieutenant in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve during the Great War. 3. • His best-known works are Hatter's Castle , The Stars Look Down , The Citadel , The Keys of the Kingdom and The Green Years , all of which were adapted to film The Citadel is a novel by A. J. Cronin, first published in 1937, which was groundbreaking in its treatment of the contentious theme of medical ethics. It has been credited with laying the foundation in Great Britain for the introduction of the NHS a decade later. In the United States, it won the National Book Award for 1937 novels, voted by members of the American Booksellers Association A.J. Cronin was a doctor himself until bad health forced a change of career in 1930. The author made many enemies in the medical profession as his novels tended to inform readers of corruption in the trade. A.J. Cronin planted a seed with The Citadel that eventually became the NHS. It is as topical today as it was over eighty years ago